Dr. Zhe Zhang published a paper in Nature Communications with his collaborators.
Myeloid lineage cells present the latent form of transforming growth factor-β1 (L-TGF-β1) to the membrane using an anchor protein LRRC33. Integrin αVβ8 activates extracellular L-TGF-β1 to trigger the downstream signaling functions. However, the mechanism designating the specificity of TGF-β1 presentation and activation remains incompletely understood. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of human L-TGF-β1/LRRC33 and integrin αVβ8/L-TGF-β1 complexes. Combined with biochemical and cell-based analyses, we demonstrate that LRRC33 only presents L-TGF-β1 but not the -β2 or -β3 isoforms due to difference of key residues on the growth factor domains. Moreover, we reveal a 2:2 binding mode of integrin αVβ8 and L-TGF-β1, which shows higher avidity and more efficient L-TGF-β1 activation than previously reported 1:2 binding mode. We also uncover that the disulfide-linked loop of the integrin subunit β8 determines its exquisite affinity to L-TGF-β1. Together, our findings provide important insights into the specificity of TGF-β1 signaling achieved by LRRC33 and integrin αVβ8.